More than a decade after the Arab Spring, the Middle East and North Africa region finds itself facing momentous challenges. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted economies, and the Russian invasion of Ukraine sent shockwaves through the region, with higher hydrocarbon prices, risks to food security and a drop in tourism. Beyond looms the threat of climate change. But challenging times provide opportunities for change. The region's private sector can seize the moment. It remains the hope for many young people and has the potential to drive a sustainable model of growth. The Enterprise Surveys, conducted by the EIB, EBRD and the World Bank, provide insight into what lies beneath the region's relatively slow growth, with a focus on the reasons for stagnating productivity and inadequate accumulation of human and physical capital in the private sector.